Kamya Richard LUKENGE

0 Projects



Ph.D. Researcher

Kamya Richard Lukenge

Ph.D. Title

Towards Attaining Socially Inclusive Mobility in Developing Cities: Assessing Informal-Formal Continuum for Participatory Modelling Processes



This doctoral thesis comprises two principal objectives. First, it argues that several popular transportation discourses present ‘Transport-informality’ or 'Para-transit' as entirely the opposite of the ‘formal’ system. Whereas this opinion that regards the ‘informal’ and ‘formal’ spheres as dichotomous could hold in the developed world, in most developing cities, where ‘formal’ systems are almost non-existent, the informal and formal exist as a ‘continuum’. The above position, as opposed to the view of dichotomy, maintains that each system contains a certain degree of the other. Therefore, based on a comprehensive theoretical review, this thesis is aimed at exploring the concept of urban mobility informalities and examining the existing ‘duality’ and the ‘continuum’ (interplay) between the formal and informal transport systems in developing cities.


The second objective focuses on the ‘social dimension’ of mobility. Transport mobility influences physical accessibility to social experiences and opportunities, such as jobs, education, leisure, and health services. Whilst mobility facilitates that connection between people, places, goods, and services, most dwellers in developing cities are excluded because of cultural, physical, and social-economic inequalities such as transport poverty. Thus, the study assesses the influence of the informal transport system on social inclusion. It investigates social-economic, time, and cultural geographies to illustrate the value of the informal mobility sector in achieving socially inclusive mobility in developing cities. Finally, based on the findings, the study intends to identify Socially Inclusive Sustainable Informal Mobility (SISIM) modes, and inform how to integrate them into the developing cities' transport systems.


This study is mixed-method research, it adopts an exploratory method, to understand the complexities surrounding the relationship between mobility informality and attaining social inclusion in developing cities. Using ‘Exploratory Sequential mixed design’, this survey qualitatively obtains and considers views from over 200 participants drawn from one developing city, and then uses the obtained information to design instruments for quantitative analysis. The last phase involves participatory modeling using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) mental modeler, to present various mobility stakeholders' existing beliefs and Knowledge about mobility social ex/inclusion, and how such knowledge co-production can lead to planning towards attaining inclusive developing cities.


Inclusive Mobility, Para-transit, Public-transport, Informal Mobility, Developing Cities, Sustainable Mobility

Expected Results

  • The study shall identify Socially Inclusive Sustainable Informal Mobility (SISIM) networks and practices and proposes ways for integrating them into developing cities’ mobility systems.
  • Through stakeholders' participatory transport modeling processes, knowledge co-production towards solution-generation for mobility social inclusion challenges shall be developed.


Prof. Kin Wai Michael SIU (Chief)

Prof. LIU, Sylvia (Co-supervisor)


Walkability Mobility: Re-envisioning Non-motorized Transport (NMT) in Developing Cities for a Sustainable Future. Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation

2021-06-27 | AHE USA conference-paper

DCW & ASLIS 2018 @ SNU Design. Conference/Workshop; ‘Smart living in Seoul’. Seoul National University.

PAD Conference Lapland University, Rovaniemi, Finland 2018. Paper Presentation “Creating Sustainable Solutions to Combat the Failing Cases of Appropriate Technology in Developing Countries: The role of community in the Design Process” 

Master’s thesis “Semiotic approach to product-form design based on traditional symbols:  Seoul National University Library Publications 2019.


MS Industrial Design: Seoul National University South Korea (SNU)
Bachelor of Industrials Design  Makerere University  (MUK)
Diploma in Secondary Education (Design) Kyambogo University (KYU)


Mass-Mobility, Transportation Design, Public-inclusive design, C2C, and Future studies.