Louie T. Navarro - PhD in Design

0 Projects


PhD Researcher

Co-founder and Creative Director @loutaetal | PhD Candidate in Design @hongkongpolyu | Educator @ust

As Co-founder and Creative Director of louta et al., Louie T. Navarro sees his role for now as that who sifts through the evermore diverse notion of what constitutes design today—where each project represents completeness, stillness whilst simultaneously embodies ‘becoming’ within the larger context of louta et al.’s portfolio of works.

Informed by his decade-long professional experience and his background of study that encompasses a wide spectrum of approaches: from a practice-based standpoint (BFA Interior Design, University of Santo Tomas, PH) to an art-theoretical perspective (MA Art Studies, major in Art Theory and Criticism, University of the Philippines, PH), and a midpoint of sorts with his doctoral research project (ongoing, PhD Design, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, HK), Louie is also just now learning local ways of ‘making’—taking him far from the hustle and bustle of Manila where he was born and raised.

Louie lives and works between Manila, Philippines, Tokyo, Japan, and Hong Kong.

ORCID iD ORCID iD iconhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0850-6789

PhD Title

Towards a new, filtered interior: arriving at a typology of interior perspective rendering and its impact on thinking, practice, and policy of interior design

Research Abstract

The interior perspective rendering is the final act of representation an interior designer undertakes before actual construction commences. By way of this image used by designers to convey possible outcomes, this research looks into what futures can be had for the interior design profession given the privileging of the visual in this age of social media.

This study examines how the interior perspective rendering produced by professional interior designers that were considered ‘effective’ by way of their recognition by peers in the industry can be assessed using a strictly Formal visual analysis—informed by the art-historical tradition of Formalism of Clive Bell (1881–1964). As an approach inspired by the continued popularity of social media, in particular, the photo-sharing app Instagram, these renderings were used in an online survey that directs its respondents to identify what specific elements and principles of design make these ‘effective’ as a representation of the ideal interior. 

Guided by the central question of this research: How does one arrive at a typology of interior perspective rendering that can be useful to #interiordesigners and non-specialist general public alike in the visually dominated space of social media—specifically Instagram? the survey targeted individuals broadly categorised into two—those with a design background and non-specialist general public. The data from this survey were then analysed in order to arrive at an equitable typology of interior perspective renderings that can provide a common language useful to many—interior designers and the non-specialist general public—as humanity continues to witness the projection of these images on the virtual world of the internet.

Divided into six chapters, this thesis begins with a short introductory chapter (Chapter 1) on the significance of this research and why the interior perspective rendering as an image must be considered more important now for the practice of interior design in this age of the Internet. Chapter 2 historicises what role representations played in the shaping of a range of practices as they are known today and how, serendipitously, by way of its preferred mode of representation, the interior perspective rendering is positioned to be in anticipation of social media’s image-driven platforms. Building on these historical practices in interior design, Chapter 3 expounds the convergence of one of the most accessible of representational practices with that of a platform that privileges that exact quality of ideal-ness it embodies—towards the construction of an operational framework. Driven by specific questions and objectives from the preceding chapter, Chapter 4 elaborates on the research design that centres on the development of the framework as a quantitative research method: as a survey that instructs respondents to rate specific elements and principles using a numerical scale in order to assess a rendering’s ‘effectivity.’ Chapter 5 is divided further into five (5) discussions: (1) the statistical analysis of the 281 responses using SPSS (IBM, USA); (2) the definition of an ‘effective’ interior perspective rendering as derived from this analysis; (3) the role of the interior perspective rendering in the age of social media; (4) the visual interpretation of the statistical data; and (5) the proposed typology of interior perspective rendering fitting of Instagram. As the main conclusion of this thesis, the last chapter (Chapter 6) reinforces the relevance of a Formalist approach—and as a corollary, the typology—that is consistent with the design of social media platforms that prescribe a certain ‘way of engagement.’ This typology is then forwarded to have established a framework for accessibility, inclusivity, and empowerment. Recommendations for future research trajectories is also included in this chapter.

In highlighting the importance of the interior perspective rendering by way of this typology, this study aims at ensuring the continued flourishing of a profession that with its very physical, tangible quality is challenged by the inescapable reality of virtuality.


Interior Design/Interior Architecture/Interior Decoration; Built Environment; Instagram; #aesthetic #beauty #FOMO #interiordesign

Key Publications

Navarro, L. T. (2021). On why universal design must be considered the minimum in the field of the built environment. Philippine Journal of Allied Health Sciences4(2), 5-6.

Navarro, L. T. (2020). A brief history of the professionalization of interior design in the Philippines. In Registered Interior Designers Association (RIDA) Book Series: Interior Design Body of Knowledge Textbook Series Book 6—Interior Design Professional Practice, 34-40. The Hong Kong Interior Design Association (HKIDA) and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

Navarro, L. T., & Bryuns, G. (2018). On why we should consider that the interior perspective render is art, after all: a review of literature concerning the development of perspective representations of interior spaces from the Italian Renaissance to the digital age. In Merwood-Salisbury, J., Dudding, M., & McDonald, C. (Eds.) SAHANZ 2018 Historiographies of Technology & Architecture: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Society of Architectural Historians of Australia and New Zealand, 405-418. SAHANZ 2018.

Navarro, L. T., & Bryuns, G. (2018). On why we cannot envision a tesseract: ‘unfolding’ the interior once more (reflections on three representational techniques for the design of the interior). In Duncan, M. W. (Ed.) ADR18: Proceedings of the 1st Annual Design Research Conference, 553-568. The University of Sydney.

Navarro, L. T. (2014). Rearticulating home: absent voices. U.P. Los Baños Journal Volume  XII


BFA, Interior Design, University of Santo Tomas (PH); MA, Art Studies major in Art Theory and Criticism, University of the Philippines (PH)


Dr. ir. Gerhard Bruyns (Chief Supervisor)
Peter Benz (External Co-supervisor)

Specialisation / Interests

Design; Interior Design/Interior Architecture/Interior Decoration; Built Environment; Architecture; Spatial Design; Representations; Renderings; Drawings; Art

Date of Completion

August 2021

louta et al.

representation in FRANCE | EU louta et al., architecte | BAM

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